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Results The mean light intensity output for the Demetron 401 curing light was 700 mW/cm 2 . The composite buttons were 4.22 mm in diameter, with a mean height of 2.01 ± 0.12 mm and 4.98 ± 0.15 mm.

ANOVA showed that the composite and composite thickness had a significant effect on the bond strength results ( p < 0.0001)

Table 1 Two-way ANOVA table for the effect of composite and thickness on bond strength

( Table 1 ). Of the 5-mm-thick specimens, the pairwise t -test on differences between least squares means showed that the Alert (3.9 MPa) and Prodigy Condensable (6.5 MPa) had the lowest bond strengths and Z100 had the greatest bond strength (16.8 MPa) ( Table 2 ). Of the 2-mm-thick specimens, Z100 (21.3 MPa) and Prodigy Condensable (22.2 MPa) had the greatest bond strengths. All the 2-mm specimens produced greater bond strengths than the 5-mm specimens made using the same materials ( p < 0.0005). The hypotheses of this study were therefore rejected, because the shear bond strengths of the 5-mm specimens were significantly lower than those of the 2-mm specimens, and the shear bond strengths of the condensable composites were not greater than those of the conventional composite.

Table 2 Mean (± SD) 24-hour shear bond strength (MPa) for 2- and 5-mm thick bulk polymerized composites

n = 15 teeth per group, thermocycled 100x, 5º-55ºC = Not significantly different (p = 0.01) Pairwise t-test: SIDAK

The modes of failure are shown in Table 3 . Nine dentinal fractures occurred with the 2-mm increment of Z100 and four dentin fractures occurred with 2 mm of Prodigy Condensable. The mean bond strength at which all the observed adhesive failures, mixed failures and dentin fractures occurred were 4.9 ± 5.6 MPa, 13.2 ± 7.0 MPa and 23.1 ± 3.9 MPa, respectively.

Table 3 Mode of failure

n = 15 samples per group

Discussion This study attempted to standardize the testing conditions and wherever possible mimic the intraoral environment, because in vitro laboratory testing under normal conditions does not always reflect what happens intraorally. For example, changing the in vitro test temperature and humidity from 23ºC/52% relative humidity (RH) to 37ºC/95% RH has been shown to decrease the bond strength of Scotchbond Multipurpose to dentin. 20 Realizing that the intraoral temperature varies depending on the location of the tooth in the mouth and the use of a rubber dam, all bonding procedures were conducted at 34ºC ± 2ºC, which was estimated to be the temperature of teeth intraorally when bonded using a rubber dam, 21 and the specimens were debonded at 37ºC. Although many dentin bonding studies do not thermal cycle 22 the specimens, it has been shown that thermocycling may affect bond strength. 23,24 Therefore, this study used thermocycling to mimic the 24-hour intraoral environment. The specimens were thermocycled 100 times (a total of 200 minutes), since more than 100 cycles have been shown to be unnecessary. 25

() Observed (Obs) condition: The cover of the window is open (white bar) and the focal subject (storer, st) caches food in the visual presence of a conspecific (observer). () Non-observed (Non) condition: The cover of the window is closed (grey bar) and the focal subject caches food in visual isolation of a conspecific (non-observer). Both observers and non-observers make sounds in the experimental chamber, which are audible to the storer. () Peephole (Peep) condition: The cover of the window is closed (grey bar) but one of the two peepholes (small white square) is open; the focal subject caches food in the absence of any behavioural cues, whereas the presence of conspecifics is simulated via playback of sounds recorded from non-observed trials (symbolized by loudspeaker).

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The experimental hypothesis that ravens learn in the familiarization trials that peepholes afford seeing predicts that ravens will behave in the test as though they are potentially being observed through the peephole. Specifically, from the findings in the observed and non-observed conditions of the initial baseline step, we would expect ravens to (i) finish caches more quickly in the peephole condition than in the non-observed condition and (ii) return to improve their caches less often in the peephole condition than in the non-observed condition, and that their caching behaviour in the peephole condition would not differ significantly from their caching behaviour in the observed condition.

We show that ravens treat the test condition like the observed condition, indicating that they can generalize from their own experience using the peephole as a pilferer and predict that audible competitors could potentially see their caches. Consequently, we argue that they represent ‘seeing’ in a way that cannot be reduced to the tracking of gaze cues.

Figure 2 summarizes the main findings. As expected, ravens differed between conditions in the time to finish a cache ( χ 2 =14.889, d.f.=2, P <0.001) and the number of revisits to improve a cache ( χ 2 =12.929, d.f.=2, P <0.001). These data clearly support both experimental hypotheses. The subjects finished their caches more quickly and they returned to improve their caches less often in the peephole condition than in the non-observed condition (Wilcoxon signed-ranks test, Bonferroni corrected: time to finish: n =9, Z =−2.666, P =0.012; revisit and improve: n =9, Z =2.539, P =0.024). No significant difference could be found between the peephole and the observed condition regarding these hypotheses (time to finish: n =9, Z =−2.192, P =0.08; revisit and improve: n =9, Z =−1.414, P =0.94). Note that ravens did go back to visually inspect their caches in several conditions (Friedman test: χ 2 =1.032, d.f.=2, P =0.625), indicating that they were not generally inhibited in returning to their caches in the observed and peephole conditions. This asymmetry makes adaptive sense, as prior studies have shown that observer ravens do not use gaze direction to find hidden food (despite being skilled at following others’ gaze into distance and around barriers) but are very prone to show enhancement when they see someone touching an item . Because all available behaviour-reading cues have been controlled for in the test condition—there is no actual competitor whose gaze could be read, and the situation is novel from the subject’s perspective—these data provide clear evidence that raven social cognition cannot be reduced to behaviour-reading.

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